We've all felt it. Sometimes stress can be a positive force, motivating you to perform well but often it's a negative force. If you experience stress over a prolonged period of time, it could become chronic — unless you take
A natural reaction
Have you ever found yourself with sweaty hands or felt your heart pound when scared? Then you know you can feel stress in both your mind and body.
This automatic response developed in our ancient ancestors as a way to protect them from predators and other threats. Faced with danger, the body kicks into gear, flooding the body with hormones that elevate your heart rate,
increase your blood pressure, boost your energy and prepare you to deal with the problem.
These days, you do confront multiple challenges on a routine basis, such as meeting deadlines, that make your body react the same way. As a result, your body's natural alarm system — the “fight or flight” response — may be
chronically activated. And that can have serious consequences for your health.
Even short-lived, minor stress can have an impact. Multiple studies have shown that these sudden emotional stresses — especially anger — can trigger heart attacks, arrhythmias and even sudden death.1 Although this happens mostly
in people who already have heart disease, some people don't know they have a problem until acute stress causes a heart attack or something worse.
When stress starts interfering with your ability to live a normal life for an extended period, it becomes even more dangerous. The longer the stress lasts, the worse it is for both your mind and body. You might feel fatigued,
unable to concentrate or irritable for no good reason, for example. But chronic stress causes wear and tear on your body, too.
Stress can make existing problems worse.2 In one study, for example, about half the participants saw improvements in chronic headaches after learning how to stop the stress-producing habit of constantly thinking negative thoughts
about their pain.3 Chronic stress may also cause disease, either because of changes in your body or the overeating, smoking and other bad habits people use to cope with stress. Job strain — high demands coupled with low
decision-making latitude — is associated with increased risk of coronary disease, for example.4 And once you're sick, stress can also make it harder to recover. One analysis of past studies, for instance, suggests that
cardiac patients with so-called “Type D” personalities — characterized by chronic distress — face higher risks of bad outcomes.
Reducing your stress levels can not only make you feel better right now, but may also protect your health long-term.
In one study, researchers examined the association between “positive affect” — feelings like happiness, joy, contentment and enthusiasm — and the development of coronary heart disease over a decade.6 From the study, the researchers
recommended boosting your positive affect by making a little time for enjoyable activities every day.
Other strategies for reducing stress include:
- Identify what's causing stress.Monitor your state of mind throughout the day. If you feel stressed, write down the cause, your thoughts and your mood. Once you know what's bothering you, develop a plan for addressing
it. That might mean setting more reasonable expectations for yourself and others or asking for help with household responsibilities, job assignments or other tasks. List all your commitments, assess your priorities
and then eliminate any tasks that are not absolutely essential.
- Build strong relationships.Relationships can be a source of stress. Research has found that negative, hostile reactions with your spouse cause immediate changes in stress-sensitive hormones, for example.7 But relationships
can also serve as stress buffers. Reach out to family members or close friends and let them know you're having a tough time. They may be able to offer practical assistance and support, useful ideas or just a fresh perspective
as you begin to tackle whatever's causing your stress.
- Walk away when you're angry. Before you react, take time to regroup by counting to 10. Then reconsider. Walking or other physical activities can also help you work off steam. Plus, exercise increases the production
of endorphins, your body's natural mood-booster. Commit to a daily walk or other form of exercise — a small step that can make a big difference in reducing stress levels.
- Rest your mind To help ensure you get the recommended seven or eight hours of shut-eye, cut back on caffeine, remove distractions such as television or computers from your bedroom and go to bed at the same time each
night. Research shows that activities like yoga and relaxation exercises not only help reduce stress, but also boost immune functioning.
- Get help. If you continue to feel overwhelmed, consult a licensed mental health professional who can help you learn how to manage stress effectively. He or she can help you identify situations or behaviors that contribute
to your chronic stress and then develop an action plan for changing them.
This article has been reproduced with permission from the American Psychological Association. Link to the original article: http://www.apa.org/helpcenter/stress.aspx